Thursday, February 12, 2015

Collection Spotlight: Schistosomiasis Collection at the Natural History Museum (SCAN)


Fig.1. Adult male and female Schistosoma parasite worms. The female is thinner and fits within the male (Photo courtesy of David Rollinson, NHM)


For our second article in the Collection Spotlight series, we spoke with Dr. David Rollinson and Dr. Aidan Emery. They are researchers at the Natural History Museum, London who work with the Schistosomiasis Collection at the Natural History Museum (SCAN). Here is what they had to say about this collection.

With almost 240 million people infected in more than 70 countries, schistosomiasis is second only to malaria in common parasitic diseases. Unlike malaria, this disease is a member of the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs), which are too often overlooked in public awareness and funding. One collection, however, acts as a repository to ongoing schistosomiasis research around the world.

The Schistosomiasis Collection at the Natural History Museum in London (SCAN) is an essential resource for studying the disease’s parasitic flatworm, known as a schistosome, and its snail hosts. These parasites begin life as free-swimming larvae, which infect freshwater snails before transferring to humans. Once inside the human body, the schistosomes mature to adults and release eggs that ultimately cause the painful and sometimes fatal disease. Eggs may be released back into the water to start the life-cycle anew. Despite the parasite’s small size and complicated life-cycle, infection is prevalent in the tropics and subtropics, with the vast majority of cases occurring in children in Africa.

 

Collecting with a purpose

Initially, scientists at the Natural History Museum, London (NHM) focused on the interactions between the parasites and their hosts. With the advent of newer technologies and the ability to focus on DNA, they made some changes. Dr. David Rollinson and Dr. Aidan Emery, NHM parasitology researchers involved with SCAN, saw significant potential for a new type of research-based collection. This collection would connect traditional biodiversity and morphological studies with public health efforts around the world.

“It became clear that some of our collections weren’t quite as good as they should be. We needed to grow the collections. We needed to make them more comprehensive,” Rollinson explained. “So SCAN came about because of that need.”

Over the past few years, they have collected more than 200,000 individual schistosome larvae, later-stage parasites, and snail hosts from different countries. Although this number seems large, these parasites are a precious commodity within the research community. When parasites spend part of their lives in human and snail vessels, the amount of material is extremely limiting. Luckily, molecular techniques, like whole genome amplification, make the collection more accessible and allow scientists to compare both the morphology and genetics of specimens.

 

Onward and upward

At the moment, SCAN is focused on training people in endemic areas who can collect and expand their repository. Unfortunately, collecting and transporting parasites across country borders is very difficult. Travel to some locations may be impossible.

“For instance, we can’t at the moment travel to some of the countries we’d like to in Africa because of the political situation,” Emery said.

Despite these limitations, Rollinson and Emery are hopeful. With the help of two other staff members at NHM, they want to continue with their success as a resource for medical and biodiversity research. Initiatives such as the Schistosomiasis Control Initiative (SCI) and the Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE) depend upon the repository’s specimens for ongoing research and drug administration.

These groups, as well as the World Health Organization, connect SCAN to efforts in sub-Saharan Africa to mitigate the disease. SCAN is ultimately a multidisciplinary operation, from studying the ecology of the parasite to addressing public health. Eventually Rollinson and Emery would like to expand the collection content to encompass other infected countries, such as India, and even other parasitic diseases. For now, they are utilizing recent advances in molecular biology to compare older specimens to ongoing outbreaks.

“The message there is that some of the old parasite and snail collections are of value and can now be studied using exciting modern, molecular approaches,” Rollinson said.


References:

Schistosomiasis. (2014). Global Network: Neglected Tropical Diseases. Retrieved from http://www.globalnetwork.org/schistosomiasis.

Schistosomiasis: A major public health problem. (n.d.). WHO online. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/schistosomiasis/en/.

What is Schistosomiasis? (n.d.). Natural History Museum, London. Retrieved from http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/life-sciences/parasites-vectors/research/human-disease/schistosomiasis-research/about-schistosomiasis/index.html.




Glossary

Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)
A group of seventeen parasitic and bacterial diseases which cause illness in more than one billion people globally and affect the world’s poorest populations. These diseases often result in physical and cognitive damage or even death and have been largely wiped out in more developed countries.
whole genome amplification
In the case of an insufficient or limited quantity of DNA, this technique allows researchers to create high yields of whole genomic DNA from small samples.

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  28. Hello everyone..Welcome to my free masterclass strategy where i teach experience and inexperience traders the secret behind a successful trade.And how to be profitable in trading I will also teach you how to make a profit of $12,000 USD weekly and how to get back all your lost funds feel free to email me on(brucedavid004@gmail.com) or whataspp number is +22999290178




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    ReplyDelete
  29. suffering from HIV disease for over 4 years, i was hopeless until one of my friend directed me to a man called Dr Udi, she said he cures the sickness and also said he has also helped her friend, i never believed her but after alot of talk, i decided to give him a try, just few days ago i contacted him and he told me what to do which i did and he gave me a herbal cure which i took and then he told me to go for a test which i also did and when the result came out i was surprised to see that i am negative. I am proud to tell you the i am the most happiest person on earth I Give thanks to Dr Udi.. If you are having any problem and you need help, You can contact him with his email drudiherbalhome@gmail.com or Whatapp: +2348051243538.

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  31. Hello everyone..Welcome to my free masterclass strategy where i teach experience and inexperience traders the secret behind a successful trade.And how to be profitable in trading I will also teach you how to make a profit of $12,000 USD weekly and how to get back all your lost funds feel free to email me on(brucedavid004@gmail.com) or whataspp number is +22999290178




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  32. I want to share a testimony of how Dr.Omohan herbal mixture cream saves me from shame and disgrace, my penis was a big problem to me as the size was really so embarrassing,and i was also having weak erection problem. I can't make love to my wife and my penis was just too small a full grown man like me having 4 inches penis and to worsen it i don't last in sex i cant even last two minutes it was really a thing of shame to me. My wife was really tired of me because my sex life was very poor,she never enjoyed sex,i was always thinking and searching for solutions everywhere until when i saw a testimony of how Dr.omohan herbal mixture cream have been helping people regarding their sex life, so i decided to give him a try and to my greatest surprise in less than one week of taking the herbs my penis grow to 8 inches i couldn't believe my eyes and as i speak now my penis is now 8 inches and i do not have week erection again. I can make love to my wife longer in bed. And my marriage is now stable,my wife now enjoy me very well in bed. can contact him dromohanherbalmedicine@gmail.com or call or what-apps him through +2348164816038. . .he also specialize on the following things

    BREAST ENLARGEMENT
    BREAST LIFT & REDUCTION
    PENILE/PENIS ENLARGEMENT
    GENERAL BODY SLIMMING
    HIPS & THIGH REDUCTION
    REGAIN VIRGINITY BACK
    Thanks for the Enlarging my penis sir, you indeed save my marriage...I am really grateful sir,

    ReplyDelete
  33. Few months ago I was Comfirm that I have herpes virus and ever since then I have been on research on how I will get rid of my Herpes but on one faithful day i saw someone testifying about Dr OSIFO and she Was saying that she was cured from herpes virus and also I quickly copy his email address and I emailed Dr OSIFO and he told me that I need to get some herbs which i purchased and he told me that he will ship the herbal medicine to me through UPS courier service and he also told that his herbal medicine is going to take five days to cure me from herpes and behold his herbal medicine work accord to him and i am free from herpes now and Dr OSIFO is a wonderful man and he is the best doctor I ever met in my life and he is the best doctor in Africa you can also email him via drosifoherbalcenter@gmail.com thanks Dr Osifo or WHATSAPP his number +2348039177826...

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  34. hello everyone i am Marcus Fransson from Switzerland i was having 3 problems 1.small penis 2.low sperm count 3.financial Breakdown ..i have been working so hard for so long in my life but all my efforts always ends in pain and sorrow,,my wife divorced me because of my small penis length which was 3 inches when erected ,i got sacked from work and my business went down and things where really falling apart for me until with my cousin about my problems and my cousin MARIAN GEORGE who stays in new York told me how this great herbal doctor HARRY helped her got pregnant and enlarge her husband penis so i quickly ask for his contact and she gave me his website link https://drharryherbaltempl.wixsite.com/solutiontemple and i contacted him and he gave me a feed back and told me all i needed to do and i did it ,,he prepared a penis enlargement cream for me and Casted a good luck and prosperity spell for me and within two weeks i got 11 inches penis size with a very large round and also i did the spell and within a month my business increased and even my old company called me back to resume my office ..Right now i am one of the happiest,rich,thankful and grateful men in the whole world because i would not have imagined what i would have done without him...my wife gets scared anytime i ask for sex,financially stable now and happy ..so if you are out there you want his help do not hesitate to contact him via email drharrysolution@gmail.com whatsapp him on +2349036417079 or website https://drharryherbaltempl.wixsite.com/solutiontemple THANKS

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  35. I'm here to testify about what DR. Afrid did for me. I have been suffering from (HERPES) disease for the past 5 years and had constant pain, especially in my knees. During the first year,I had faith in God that i would be healed someday.This disease started circulating all over my body and i have been taking treatment from my doctor, few weeks ago i came across a testimony of one lady on the internet testifying about a Man called DR. Afrid on how he cured her from herpes disease. And she also gave the email address of this man and advise anybody to contact him for help for any kind of sickness that he would be of help, so I emailed him telling him about my (HERPES) he told me not to worry that i was going to be cured!! Well i never believed it well after all the procedures and remedy given to me by this man few weeks later i started experiencing changes all over me as DR. Afrid assured me that i will be cured,after some time i went to my doctor to confirmed if i have be finally healed behold it was TRUE, the test came out negative. So friends my advise is if you have such sickness or any other at all you can contact DR. Afrid for help via email{ drafridhaberbalhome@gmail.com} CALL/WHATSAPP HIM +2349057260738.

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  36. ENSURE TO READY THIS SHOCKING ALS CURE TESTIMONY. i was diagnosed with ALS for 3years ago i lived in pain with the knowledge that i wasn't going to ever be well again i contacted so many herbal doctors on this issue and wasted a large sum of money but my condition never got better i was determined to get my life back so one day i saw so many comment on A HERBAL DOCTOR FROM THE CALLED Dr MOHAMMED saved many lifes from the DISEASE with his herbal medicine i contacted Dr MOHAMMED on his email address herbalcure12@gmail.com we spoke on the issue i told him all that i went through and he told me not to worry that everything will be fine again so he prepared the herbal medicine and send it to me through DHL courier delivering service and told me how to use it,after some days i begin to notice a very huge changes in my body, all the symptoms were eliminated completely, no muscle weakness or stiffness, i am perfectly okay, no wasting and paralysis of the muscles of the limbs and trunk, no difficulties on my speech or difficulties on my breathing, no difficulties on swallowing, i am perfectly healthy and okay then i realize that this herbal medicine is really working, than after the 17days of usage I went to see the doctor for test ,then the result was negative,am the happiest human on earth now. this testimony is real.thanks to Dr MOHAMMED , God bless you. you can also reach him on his whatsApp/call number +2349036036397, or email herbalcure12@gmail.com, HE HAS CURE FOR, HERPES, HIV/AIDS,CANCER, LUPUS VIRUS, ALS AN MANY MORE

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  37. I have been suffering from (HERPES) disease for the last four years and had constant pain, especially in my knees. During the first year, I had faith in God that I would be healed someday.This disease started to circulate all over my body and I have been taking treatment from my doctor, a few weeks ago I came on search on the internet if I could get any information concerning the prevention of this disease, on my search I saw a testimony of someone who has been healed from (Hepatitis B and Cancer) by this Man Dr. Silver and she also gave the email address of this man and advise we should contact him for any sickness that he would be of help, so I wrote to Dr. Silver telling him about my (HERPES Virus) he told me not to worry that I was going to be cured!! hmm i never believed it,, well after all the procedures and remedy given to me by this man few weeks later I started experiencing changes all over me as the Dr. assured me that I have cured, after some time i went to my doctor to confirmed if I have been finally healed behold it was TRUE, So friends my advice is if you have such sickness or any other at all you can email Dr. Silver (drsilverhealingtemple@gmail.com) sir I am indeed grateful for the help I will forever recommend you to my friends!!! with your lovely Email Address ( drsilverhealingtemple@gmail.com

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  38. I never thought that there will be a miracle on the internet until i came in contact with Priest Babaka, finally i made it with his help, with his spiritual power which was recommended by a lady in baby center he help before, i never believe it was real until i confirm it now because i have tried so many things to make sure i get pregnant but no luck, immediately i contact him. he did some spiritual prayers and send me a medicine which i took, i got pregnant three weeks after, and i now have a son to show. thank you so much priest and i recommend Priest Babaka for everyone out there that is willing to have a child of her own out there. contact him for help too he is real and powerful, i have confirmed it, contact him on email: babaka.wolf@gmail.com or Facebook at priest.babaka


    I never thought that there will be a miracle on the internet until i came in contact with Priest Babaka, finally i made it with his help, with his spiritual power which was recommended by a lady in baby center he help before, i never believe it was real until i confirm it now because i have tried so many things to make sure i get pregnant but no luck, immediately i contact him. he did some spiritual prayers and send me a medicine which i took, i got pregnant three weeks after, and i now have a son to show. thank you so much priest and i recommend Priest Babaka for everyone out there that is willing to have a child of her own out there. contact him for help too he is real and powerful, i have confirmed it, contact him on email: babaka.wolf@gmail.com or Facebook at priest.babaka

    ReplyDelete